When Hamas won a majority in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, the opposing political party Fatah refused to join the proposed coalition, until a short-lived unity government agreement was brokered by Saudi Arabia. By February 2009, food availability returned to pre-war levels but a shortage of fresh produce was forecast due to damage sustained by the agricultural sector. The situation in Gaza is the direct result of Hamas' rule and priorities.". [34] This broke the Unity Government between Gaza Strip and the West Bank, creating two separate governments for the Occupied Palestinian Territories. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its military and maintains a no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory. "[157], Some analysts have argued that the Gaza Strip can be considered a de facto independent state, even if not internationally recognized as such. The Gaza Strip has rudimentary land line telephone service provided by an open-wire system, as well as extensive mobile telephone services provided by PalTel (Jawwal) and Israeli providers such as Cellcom. The airstrike targets included rocket manufacturing facility and training and military posts belonging to Hamas, the militant group ruling Gaza… Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The opening ceremony was held by the Islamic Society. Beit Lahia and Beit Hanoun are located to the north and northeast of Gaza City, respectively. The al-Aqsa Intifada triggered tight IDF closures of the border with Israel, as well as frequent curbs on traffic in Palestinian self-rule areas, severely disrupting trade and labor movements. The British mandate ended on May 15, 1948, and on that same day the first Arab-Israeli war began. The current Gaza conflict is the most damaging in more than a decade, as infrastructure and civilians are pounded by shelling. ", Museum Offers Gray Gaza a View of Its Dazzling Past, Ethan Bronner, "Gaza families shut down UN summer camps", "Hamas-Run Schools in Gaza Set Out to Teach Hebrew", "Country Comparison: Infant mortality rate", '200 Gazans injured in separate incidents on first day of Eid al-Adha,', "WHO | WHO statement on the situation in the Gaza Strip", "As Bombs Fell in Gaza, a Rich Cactus Lover Could Cultivate Only Patience", "Maymanah Farhat, "Under the Voices of Fire: Artists in Gaza, Gaza opens first Olympic-size swimming pool, السباحة صالة الالعاب الرياضية والساونا في النادي, Ancient Gaza Roadway Still a Vital Resource, "World Report 2015: Israel/Palestine – Events of 2014", "Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics – 2004 Survey of Computer, Internet and Mobile Phone Ownership", "Matt-27:25 in Ancient Christian Writings,", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaza_Strip&oldid=1002572035, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2020, Articles with minor POV problems from November 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, Articles with failed verification from May 2018, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source: CIA Factbook via Index Mundi 2020, Used since 1986; as in Israel, replaced the, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 01:58. The international border along the Philadelphi corridor between Egypt and the Gaza Strip is 7 miles (11 km) long. A barrier on the Gaza Strip-Egypt border was constructed starting in 2004. Israel withdrew its last forces from Gaza on Tuesday, as a 72-hour ceasefire between the country and Palestinian militants went into effect. Israeli Major General Giora Eiland, who headed Israel's National Security Council, has argued that after the disengagement and Hamas takeover, the Gaza Strip became a de facto state for all intents and purposes, writing that "It has clear borders, an effective government, an independent foreign policy and an army. Gaza is a single, contiguous territory with de facto borders, recognised, if not always respected, by friend and foe alike. Some of the rockets could reach as far as the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area. Hundreds of thousands of Gazans crossed the border into Egypt seeking food and supplies. Israeli armoured troop unit entering Gaza during the Six-Day War, June 6, 1967. Only in exceptional cases are people allowed to pass through the Erez Crossing or the Rafah Border Crossing. It has a 51 kilometers (32 mi) border with Israel, and an 11 km (7 mi) border with Egypt, near the city of Rafah. Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip or Egypt were issued All-Palestine passports. In politically stable times, as much as one-tenth of the Palestinian population travels daily to Israel (where they are not allowed to stay overnight) to work in menial jobs. The kibbutz community had been established as part of the. [24][25] Due to the Israeli and Egyptian border closures and the Israeli sea and air blockade, the population is not free to leave or enter the Gaza Strip, nor allowed to freely import or export goods. [237], In April 2012, the Hamas government in Gaza approved its budget for 2012, which was up 25 percent year-on-year over 2011 budget, indicating that donors, including Iran, benefactors in the Islamic world, and Palestinian expatriates, are still heavily funding the movement. "[254] Hamas officials denied having any plans to impose Islamic law. Nevertheless, Gaza is a castrated state. In 2005, Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip under their unilateral disengagement plan. Economic development has been hindered by Israel refusing to allow the operation of a sea harbour. [81] Interior Minister Hani Qawasmi, who had been considered a moderate civil servant acceptable to both factions, resigned due to what he termed harmful behavior by both sides. Egypt's foreign ministry said that the crossing would remain open mainly for people, but not for supplies. [172][171][173] In 2010, the UN estimated that 30 percent of the arable land in Gaza had been lost to the buffer zone. In January 2007, fighting erupted between Hamas and Fatah. [31] Article V of the Agreement declared that the demarcation line was not to be an international border. The area receives an average of about 12 inches (300 mm) of precipitation annually. Hotels in the Gaza Strip were unable to host New Year's Eve parties as they turned into quarantine centers due to the coronavirus pandemic, which has led them to incur great losses that bode ill for the sector. [266] The Gaza Strip places 24th out of 135 countries according to Human Poverty Index. [35] In July 2014, a set of lethal incidents between Hamas and Israel led to the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. Hilmi S.Salem, 'Social, Environmental and Security Impacts of Climate Change on the Eastern Mediterranean,' in Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Czeslaw Mesjasz, John Grin, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, Béchir Chourou, Pál Dunay, Joern Birkmann (eds. The barrier was largely torn down by Palestinians at the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in September 2000.[59]. Israel imposed a blockade, and the only goods permitted into the Strip through the land crossings were goods of a humanitarian nature, and these were permitted in limited quantities. The Strip's population has continued to increase since that time, one of the main reasons being a total fertility rate which peaked at 8.3 children per woman in 1991 and fell to 4.4 children per woman in 2013 which was still among the highest worldwide. Abbas had always conditioned this on Hamas returning control of the Gaza Strip to the Palestinian Authority. [65][66][67], In his statement on the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Richard Falk, United Nations Special Rapporteur wrote that international humanitarian law applied to Israel "in regard to the obligations of an Occupying Power and in the requirements of the laws of war. It subsequently moved to Cairo and dissolved in 1959 by decree of Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser. wide and 28 miles (45 km.) Egypt agreed to provide 600,000 liters of fuel to Gaza daily, but it had no way of delivering it that Hamas would agree to.[235]. In July 2007, after winning the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Hamas became the elected government. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its military and maintains a no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory. Notable artists include painters Ismail Ashour, Shafiq Redwan, Bashir Senwar, Majed Shalla, Fayez Sersawi, Abdul Rahman al Muzayan and Ismail Shammout, and media artists Taysir Batniji (who lives in France) and Laila al Shawa (who lives in London). Much of the Strip (except for the settlement blocs and military areas) came under Palestinian control. 323–327. Facing mounting international pressure, Egypt and Israel lessened the restrictions starting in June 2010, when the Rafah border crossing from Egypt to Gaza was partially opened by Egypt. Joshua Castellino, Kathleen A. Cavanaugh, Doug Suisman, Steven Simon, Glenn Robinson, C. Ross Anthony, Michael Schoenbaum (eds.). Israel—which had begun its occupation by helping Gazans to plant approximately 618,000 trees in 1968, and to improve seed selection—over the first 3-year period of the second intifada, destroyed 10 percent of Gazan agricultural land, and uprooted 226,000 trees. [209] While Lauren Booth,[210][211] Philip Slater,[212] Giorgio Agamben[213] compare it to a "concentration camp". Any external travel from Gaza requires cooperation from either Egypt or Israel. [249] There has also been successful resistance[by whom?] In 2004, most Gaza households had a radio and a TV (70%+), and approximately 20% had a personal computer. It is located on the Mediterranean Sea between Israel and Egypt. In 2007, the college received accreditation to award BA degrees as the University College of Applied Sciences (UCAS). Ahmed Abu Al-Amreen of the Hamas-run Energy Authority refused it on the grounds that the crossing is operated by Israel and Hamas' fierce opposition to the existence of Israel. It can interfere with radio and TV transmissions, and the Palestinian Authority cannot engage in independent initiatives for operating a seaport or airport. Following a breakdown in an Egyptian-brokered truce, Israel launched an air strike which destroyed a building used by Hamas. On 26 March 1979, Israel and Egypt signed the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. Pursuant to the Oslo Accords signed in 1993, the Palestinian Authority became the administrative body that governed Palestinian population centers while Israel maintained control of the airspace, territorial waters and border crossings with the exception of the land border with Egypt which is controlled by Egypt. Portions of the direct economic support have been provided by the Arab League, though it largely has not provided funds according to schedule. [161], Geoffrey Aronson has likewise argued that the Gaza Strip can be considered a proto-state with some aspects of sovereignty, writing that "a proto-state already exists in the Gaza Strip, with objective attributes of sovereignty the Ramallah-based Mahmoud Abbas can only dream about. [195], Because of the Israeli–Egyptian blockade, the population is not free to leave or enter the Gaza Strip. For example, in 2014, a Panamanian-flagged ship claiming to be carrying construction materials was boarded by the IDF and was found to contain Syrian produced rockets. "Palestinian officials said that a $10 million grant from Qatar was covering the cost of two weeks' worth of industrial diesel that started entering Gaza by truckload from Israel. The improvement and rebuilding of infrastructure is also negatively impacted by these sanctions. The southern border with Egypt continued to be the international border drawn in 1906 between the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.[47]. The program was created in Malaysia in 1993, according to the school principal, Majed al-Bari. [233], In mid-February 2012, as the crisis escalated, Hamas rejected an Egyptian proposal to bring in fuel via the Kerem Shalom Crossing between Israel and Gaza to reactivate Gaza's only power plant. Israel does not have troops regularly deployed in Gaza, and it can only deploy such troops through heavy and difficult fighting. [216], Israel also restricts movement of Palestinian residents between the West Bank and Gaza. Both the Israeli Navy and Egypt enforce the blockade, which continues currently and has limited many aspects of life in Gaza, especially, according to Human Rights Watch, the movement of people and commerce, with exports being most affected. [218], The EU described the Gaza economy as follows: "Since Hamas took control of Gaza in 2007 and following the closure imposed by Israel, the situation in the Strip has been one of chronic need, de-development and donor dependency, despite a temporary relaxation on restrictions in movement of people and goods following a flotilla raid in 2010. Israel maintains that the blockade is legal and necessary to limit Palestinian rocket attacks from the Gaza Strip on its cities and to prevent Hamas from obtaining other weapons. 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