B) Lal Bal Pal. [10], Nehru dressed in cadet uniform at Harrow School in England, Nehru in khaki uniform as a member of Seva Dal, Nehru had developed an interest in Indian politics during his time in Britain as a student and a barrister. Essentially, it was an acceptance of the principle of Pakistan – but not in so many words. Nehru was arrested on charges of anti-governmental activities in 1921, and was released a few months later. "I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour than that she should in a cowardly manner become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonour." They get it in taxes from the people. He was a member of the Nehru-Gandhi family and the father of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. He was keenly sensitive regarding the geostrategic and military strengths and weaknesses of India in 1947. Britain weighed in with Bren and Sten guns, and airlifted 150 tons of arms to India. Nehru was a key organizer of the Bandung Conference of April 1955, which brought 29 newly independent nations together from Asia and Africa, and was designed to galvanize the nonalignment movement under Nehru's leadership. It increased his popularity in India, but he was criticised by the communist opposition in India for the use of military force.[179]. [227] Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was "hurt" by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake out an identity independent of her father.[228]. [103], Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. He had earlier, after addressing a huge meeting and leading a vast procession, ceremoniously manufactured some contraband salt. Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, activist and politician belonging to the Indian National Congress. He remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War. Jawaharlal Nehru also states in his autobiography that on their way to Agra (a seat of Mughal influence) from Delhi, the members of his grand father’s family were detained by the British. "[20] Nehru harboured doubts regarding the effectiveness of Congress but agreed to work for the party in support of the Indian civil rights movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa,[21] collecting funds for the movement in 1913. [268], Early struggle for independence (1912–1938), Internationalising struggle for Indian independence: 1927, Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy: 1929, Electoral politics, Europe, and economics: 1936–1938, Struggle for independence, from World War II, Pakistan Resolution, August Offer, civil disobedience: 1940, Japan attacks India, Cripps' mission, Quit India: 1942, Interim Prime Minister and Independence: 1946–52, Reservations for socially-oppressed communities, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFMoraes2007 (, Sen, Zoë Keshap C. 1964. Under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi in 1918, Nehru became one of the first to transform his life to exclude western clothes and material goods, adopting a more native Indian lifestyle[citation needed]. [161], Nehru, while adverse to war, led the preparations and actual campaigns against Pakistan with regard to Kashmir. A senior Indian foreign office official characterize Menon as "an outstanding world statesman but the world's worst diplomat," adding that he was often "overbearing, churlish and vindictive". Motilal passed the matriculation examination from Kanpur, and went on to attend Muir Central College at Allahabad. Although initially close to Gandhi, he openly criticised Gandhi's suspension of civil resistance in 1922 due to the murder of policemen by a riotous mob in Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh. [citation needed] After an exhaustive and divisive debate with the non-Hindi speakers, Hindi was adopted as the official language of India in 1950 with English continuing as an associate official language for a period of 15 years, after which Hindi would become the sole official language. Under American advice (by American envoy John Kenneth Galbraith who made and ran American policy on the war as all other top policy makers in the US were absorbed in coincident Cuban Missile Crisis) Nehru refrained, not according to the best choices available, from using the Indian air force to beat back the Chinese advances. He was also known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community, while Indian children knew him better as Chacha Nehru (Hindi: Uncle Nehru).[2][3]. Under Nehru, he served as India's high commissioner to UK, UN ambassador, and union minister of defence. [176], Dag Hammarskjöld, the second Secretary-General of the United Nations, said that while Nehru was superior from a moral point of view, Zhou Enlai was more skilled in realpolitik. He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), a descendant of Dravidar Kazhagam, led the opposition to Hindi. His father, Motilal Nehru (1861–1931), a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. Joy house). The distinction between Part A and Part B states was removed, becoming known simply as states. [42][43] In 1928, Gandhi agreed to Nehru's demands and proposed a resolution that called for the British to grant dominion status to India within two years. In 2012, Nehru was ranked number 4 in Outlook's poll of The Greatest Indian. Later, Pakistan handed over some portion of Kashmir near Siachen controlled by Pakistan since 1948 to China. B. R. Ambedkar, the law minister in the interim cabinet who also chaired the Constitution Drafting Committee. Vallabhbhai Patel served as home minister in the interim government. He grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. [204], Abul Kalam Azad was the First Minister of Education in the Indian government Minister of Human Resource Development (until 25 September 1958, Ministry of Education). [1] He was arrested during the Non-Cooperation Movement. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which eventually replaced his legal practice. His father’s name was Motilal Nehru, his mother’s name was Swaroopani. The war with China in 1962 caused a radical shift. [127], The policy of non-alignment during the Cold War meant that Nehru received financial and technical support from both power blocs in building India's industrial base from scratch. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959. [267] President Rajendra Prasad awarded him the honour without taking advice from the Prime Minister as would be the normal constitutional procedure. His real interest in Marxism and his socialist pattern of thought stem from that tour. Singh states it elaborately. Jawaharlal Nehru. [209], C. D. Deshmukh was one of 5 members of the Planning Commission when it was constituted in 1950 by a cabinet resolution. [114] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: After the adoption of the constitution on 26 November 1949, the Constituent Assembly continued to act as the interim parliament until new elections. [164] Nehru famously said to Bhabha, "Professor Bhabha take care of Physics, leave international relation to me". [233] Edwina's daughter Pamela acknowledged Nehru's platonic relationship with Edwina. This has led to accusations of selective secularism. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s. While they live in luxury, their people, who work hard and give them the money, starve and their children have no schools to go to. [183][184], During the conflict, Nehru wrote two desperate letters to US President John F. Kennedy, requesting 12 squadrons of fighter jets and a modern radar system. In the face of these allegations, Nehru responded:[37]. This effectively ensured the current "virtual indefinite policy of bilingualism" of the Indian Republic. In addition, Nehru's stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. [174] The treaty was disregarded in the 1960s, but in the 1970s, the Five Principles again came to be seen as important in China–India relations, and more generally as norms of relations between states. The reaction back home was favourable; only the far-left and the far-right criticised Nehru's decision[citation needed]. Jawaharlal Nehru had two sisters and he was the eldest of all. Gender. "[51] He was arrested on 14 April 1930 while on train from Allahabad for Raipur. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. [62][63] The elections brought Congress party to power in a majority of the provinces with increased popularity and power for Nehru. They had three children; Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi and Krishna. [52], He nominated Gandhi to succeed him as Congress President during his absence in jail, but Gandhi declined, and Nehru then nominated his father as his successor. His idealistic approach focused on giving India a leadership position in nonalignment. Nehru." "[253], Historian Ramachandra Guha writes, "[had] Nehru retired in 1958 he would be remembered as not just India's best prime minister, but as one of the great statesmen of the modern world. Nehru's residence in Delhi is preserved as the Teen Murti House now has Nehru Memorial Museum & Library, and one of five Nehru Planetariums that were set in Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Allahabad and Pune. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, and 1962. For Nehru, modernization was the national philosophy, with seven goals: national unity, parliamentary democracy, industrialization, socialism, development of the scientific temper, and non-alignment. You see them going about with fine clothes, in expensive motor cars and spending a lot of money on themselves. After much deliberation, the Congress under Nehru informed the government that it would cooperate with the British but on certain conditions. Between violence and cowardly flight, I can only prefer violence to cowardice. We have sympathy for the national movement of Arabs in Palestine because it is directed against British Imperialism. First, Britain must give an assurance of full independence for India after the war and allow the election of a constituent assembly to frame a new constitution; second, although the Indian armed forces would remain under the British Commander-in-Chief, Indians must be included immediately in the central government and given a chance to share power and responsibility. ", "Treaties and international agreements registered or filed and recorded with the Secretariat of the United Nations", "India's moment in the Suez Canal crisis", "China's Decision for War with India in 1962 by John W. Garver", "Tibetans-in-exile divided over right to vote in Indian elections", "Jawaharlal Nehru pleaded for US help against China in 1962", "Assassination Attempt on Nehru Made in Car", "Rickshaw Boy Arrested for Attempting to Kill Nehru", "Knife Wielder Jumps on Car of Indian Premier", "Police Say Nehru's Assassination Plot is Thwarted", "Bombay Police Thwart Attempt on Nehru's Life", "Jawaharlal Nehru: The Maker of modern India", "A Man Who, with All His Mind and Heart, Loved India", BBC ON THIS DAY | 27 | 1964: Light goes out in India as Nehru dies, The death of Mr Nehru, hero and architect of modern India, "India Mourning Nehru, 74, Dead of a Heart Attack; World Leaders Honor Him", "International Urdu conference from Nov. 10", "Maulana Azad and the Demand for Pakistan: A Reappraisal", "Nation pays homage to Govind Ballabh Pant", "Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand", "REFERENCE MATERIAL 2010 NOTES ON THE FUNCTIONING OF VARIOUS DIVISIONS", "India: Central Government Budgets – 1947–48 to 2003–04", "dated December 21, 1954: State Bank of India", "From years 1916 to 1964...The man and the times", "If I Weren't A Sanyasin, He Would Have Married Me", "The Rediff Interview / Stanley Wolpert 'I have tried to tell Nehru's story as honestly as possible, "Nehru-Edwina were in love: Edwina's daughter", "Nehru-Edwina were in deep love, says Edwina's daughter", Universal primary education first on the Prime Minster's agenda, "Jawaharlal Nehru Biography – Childhood, Facts & Achievements of India's First Prime Minister", "The Hindu : Young World : From dad with love", Independence and After: A collection of the more important speeches of Jawaharlal Nehru from September 1946 to May 1949, 70th Anniversary of Indian Independence - Nehru's Birthday Dinner Programme - UK Parliament Living Heritage, Newspaper clippings about Jawaharlal Nehru, 1950 University of Cambridge Chancellor election, List of international prime ministerial trips made by Jawaharlal Nehru, Before Freedom: Nehru's Letters to His Sister 1909–1947, Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu TCC, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jawaharlal_Nehru&oldid=1002601363, Alumni of the Inns of Court School of Law, Members of the Constituent Assembly of India, Presidents of the Indian National Congress, Recipients of the Order of the Companions of O. R. Tambo, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with minor POV problems from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, If any people choose to think of me, then I should like them to say: "This was the man who, with all his mind and heart, loved India and the Indian people. [128] Nehru's critics, however, contended that India's import substitution industrialisation, which was continued long after the Nehru era, weakened the international competitiveness of its manufacturing industries. [137] While India's economy grew faster than both the United Kingdom and the United States, low initial income and rapid population increase meant that growth was inadequate for any sort of catch-up with rich income nations. During the early part of the 19th century, Gangadhar's father, Laxmi Narain Nehru, worked as a scribe in Delhi for the East India Company.. Gangadhar Nehru was appointed the Kotwal (a rank similar to Chief of police) of Delhi in the court of Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II. It failed, however, to benefit the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the Hindu fundamentalists. In December 1953, Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines. Nandlal left Khetri for Agra and found that his prior career at Khetri equipped him to advise litigants regarding their legal suits. [70] Nehru worked closely with Bose in developing good relations with governments of free countries all over the world. Only Jinnah received something more precise: "The British would not contemplate transferring power to a Congress-dominated national government the authority of which was 'denied by large and powerful elements in India's national life. Nehru remarked about the unprecedented popular response, "it seemed as though a spring had been suddenly released. Nehru specifically wrote Article 44 of the Indian constitution under the Directive Principles of State Policy which states: "The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India." By some accounts, the Nehru family home in Delhi had been looted and burnt down during the Mutiny. India's policy of weaponisation via indigenous sources and self-sufficiency began in earnest under Nehru, completed by his daughter Indira Gandhi, who later led India to a crushing military victory over rival Pakistan in 1971. But, it can be read in Jawaharlal Nehru’s autobiography that it was his ancestor Raj Kaul who got the name ‘Nehru’ (from nahar, a … [186], There were four known assassination attempts on Nehru. After spending a little more than a year in jail, Nehru was released, along with other Congress prisoners, three days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The government, therefore, directed investment primarily into key public sector industries—steel, iron, coal, and power—promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies. Jagjivan Ram became the youngest minister in Nehru's Interim government of India a Labour Minister and also a member of the Constituent Assembly of India, where, as a member from the dalit caste, he ensured that social justice was enshrined in the Constitution. He … Jawahar Lal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889. He was charged with breach of the salt law, tried summarily behind prison walls and sentenced to six months of imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru had a luxurious and privileged life in his childhood. Headed by Justice Fazal Ali, the commission itself was also known as the Fazal Ali Commission. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14th 1889 in Allahabad in a rich Kashmiri Family. This illustrated copy of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's much acclaimed book should be made a compulsory reading for all children and teenagers in India. The taxes are given so that the money may be used to help all the people in the country — by making schools and hospitals and libraries and museums and good roads and many other things for the good of the people. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement, serving India as Prime Minister from its establishment in 1947 as an independent nation, until his death in 1964. He died in February 1861 and his youngest child, Motilal, was born three months later. [12] According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of [India].… [They] provided Nehru the initial impulse for [his] long intellectual quest which culminated…in The Discovery of India. [239] Towards the end of the 1950s, Indira Gandhi served as the President of the Congress. During the mid-1930s, Nehru was much concerned with developments in Europe, which seemed to be drifting toward another world war. However, by 1944, Jinnah's power and prestige were waning. [16][17], After returning to India in August 1912, Nehru enrolled himself as an advocate of the Allahabad High Court and tried to settle down as a barrister. But the real importance, to my mind, lay in the effect they had on our own people, and especially the village masses.… Non-cooperation dragged them out of the mire and gave them self-respect and self-reliance.… They acted courageously and did not submit so easily to unjust oppression; their outlook widened and they began to think a little in terms of India as a whole.… It was a remarkable transformation and the Congress, under Gandhi's leadership, must have the credit for it. [264][265], Nehru was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Toward Freedom. Where do they get all this money from? Jawaharlal Nehru was the only son of his father, besides Motilal Nehru had two daughters. [95] In April 1943, the League captured the governments of Bengal and, a month later, that of the North West Frontier Province. UNESCO. [10] He was called to the Bar in 1912. Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. His death was announced to Lok Sabha at 14:00 local time on 27 May 1964 (same day); cause of death is believed to be heart attack. [135][136][138], Nehru's preference for big state controlled enterprises created a complex system of quantitative regulations, quotas and tariffs, industrial licenses and a host of other controls. Our sympathies cannot be weakened by the fact that the national movement coincides with Hitler's interests. [136] State planning, controls, and regulations were argued to have impaired economic growth. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the US and the USSR. [210][211] Deshmukh succeeded John Mathai as the Union Finance Minister in 1950 after Mathai resigned in protest over the transfer of certain powers to the Planning Commission. We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. Allahabad, India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic, social and political reforms. [168], Nehru orchestrated the ouster and arrest of Sheikh Abdullah, the then prime minister of Kashmir in 1953, whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. [19] Later, he campaigned against indentured labour and other such discrimination faced by Indians in the British colonies. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children to fight malnutrition. [75] He opened up its ranks to membership from across the political spectrum. [173] They were enunciated in the preamble to the "Agreement (with exchange of notes) on trade and intercourse between Tibet Region of China and India", which was signed at Peking on 29 April 1954. [164] Nehru also called Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, a nuclear physicist, who was entrusted with complete authority over all nuclear-related affairs and programs and answered only to Nehru himself. He wanted to model India as a secular country; his secularist policies remain a subject of debate.[247][248]. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Two of his great-great-grandsons, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 15:53. Nehru served as prime minister for 18 years, first as the interim prime minister and from 1950 as the prime minister of the republic of India. Nehru accepted the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, signing the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. But, unlike his father, he had very little interest in his profession and did not relish either the practice of law or the company of lawyers: "Decidedly the atmosphere was not intellectually stimulating and a sense of the utter insipidity of life grew upon me. Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, activist and politician belonging to the Indian National Congress. Toward the end of the war India had increased her support for Tibetan refugees and revolutionaries, some of them having settled in India, as they were fighting the same common enemy in the region. [98] Vallabhbhai Patel and V. P. Menon were more conciliatory towards the princes, and as the men charged with integrating the states, were successful in the task. Recognising the People's Republic of China soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc continued relations with Taiwan), Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea. Motilal Nehru belonged to Kashmiri Pandit Family and he served as President of Indian National Congress in 1919 and 1928. New Delhi, India. [159] He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. Motilal Nehru was born on 6 May 1861, the posthumous son of Gangadhar Nehru and his wife Indrani. [142], Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for India's children and youth, believing it essential for India's future progress. [55], The Salt Satyagraha succeeded in drawing the attention of the world. As Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. Tutored at home until the age of 15, Nehru subsequently attended Harrow in … [14], The entry of Motilal's son Jawaharlal Nehru into politics in 1916, started the most powerful and influential Indian political dynasty. [60][61], At the 1936 Lucknow session of 1936, the Congress party, despite opposition from the newly elected Nehru as the party president, agreed to contest the provincial elections to be held in 1937 under the Government of India Act 1935. [102] The agreed plan in 1946 led to elections to the provincial assemblies and the members of the assemblies in turn electing members of the Constituent assembly. 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